Tuesday, 05 October 2021 12:42

Agricultural Production, Import and Export of Agricultural and Food Products in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Written by Prof. Dr. Fatih Kıllı
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GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan, [1, 3] which borders Pakistan in the east and south, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the east with a small border, gained its independence on 8 August 1919 with the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 [2]. Afghanistan, which is an important geopolitical country, has been the focus of large migrations and has been subjected to many invasions. Afghanistan was occupied by Soviet forces in 1979 and by the United States in 2001. The current Constitution of Afghanistan, consisting of 12 chapters and 162 articles, was adopted on January 26, 2004, and the name of the state was included in the Constitution as the “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan” [3]. After the US withdrew from Afghanistan in 2021, the Taliban took over the country. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is an Asian country that does not border the sea with an area of approximately 652,100 km2 and a population of 33 million [1]. Its capital is Kabul and its other major cities are Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif and Jalalabad (Image 1).

 

Population

According to the data of the last nine years (2010-2018) (Chart 1), the population of Afghanistan is 33 263 261 people on average. Men constitute 51% of this population with 17 069 695, and women constitute 49% with 16 082 455. 74% of the population live in rural areas and 26% live in urban areas. Average annual population growth rate is around 2.5% [4].

The social structure in Afghanistan is diverse and Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Hazaras and smaller ethnic groups make up the people of Afghanistan today. Although definite ethnic boundaries cannot be drawn in terms of living areas, Pashtuns are concentrated in the south, Tajiks are concentrated in the east, Tajikistan and Iran in the west, Turkmen and Uzbeks are concentrated in the north, and Hazaras are concentrated in the central region. While ethnic differences can be seen as a historical richness for Afghanistan, they are also subject to geopolitical sensitivity due to their similar origins with neighboring countries [5].

Chart 1. Population Information of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 2010-2018 [4].

Years

Male Population

Female Population

Total Population

Rural Population

Urban Population

2010

14 935 756

14 249 755

29 185 507

21 966 187

6 836 980

2011

15 415 361

14 702 050

30 117 413

22 594 126

7 117 473

2012

15 964 874

15 196 504

31 161 376

23 280 663

7 416 295

2013

16 554 278

15 715 314

32 269 589

23 997 856

7 733 832

2014

17 138 803

16 232 001

33 370 794

24 703 798

8 054 222

2015

17 686 166

16 727 437

34 413 603

25 368 923

8 367 571

2016

18 186 994

17 196 034

35 383 032

25 985 093

8 670 939

2017

18 651 985

17 644 126

36 296 113

26 558 609

8 971 472

2018

19 093 043

18 078 879

37 171 921

27 099 874

9 273 302

Average

17 069 695

16 082 455

33 263 261

24 617 236

8 048 787

Percentage of Total Population

51

49

 

74

26

Climate

Afghanistan generally has a harsh and low-rainfall climate, but the climate varies in some parts of the country. The winter months are very severe in the mountainous areas, but mild in the Hamun basin extending to Sistan and in the Amu Darya valley in the north. Summers are hot and very dry, and the temperature can reach up to 45 degrees Celsius in some valleys [6]. However, the climate of Afghanistan, which is generally a plateau country, is warm in spring and autumn, and therefore grapes, melons, peaches, apricots, walnuts are grown from mid-climate products. In Afghanistan with an annual precipitation of 992 mm, it can exceed 200-400 mm on the northern and southern slopes of the mountainous axis, 100 mm in the Sistan region, and 1000 mm on the peaks of the Hindu Kush Mountains. The distribution of precipitation by months is quite uneven. The rainiest months are February, March and April (Chart 2).

Chart 2. Average Temperature and Precipitation Data for Afghanistan (1977-2013).

 

Months

Temperature

Precipitation (mm)

Min (°C)

Max (°C)

Avg (°C)

January

-6.2

11.4

2.6

45

February

-5.0

12.9

3.9

123

March

-1.3

16.2

7.4

147

April

2.7

21.2

11.9

137

May

7.5

26.9

17.2

62

June

11.5

30.7

21.1

53

July

14.6

31.5

23.0

83

August

13.8

30.1

21.9

157

September

9.7

28.0

18.8

77

October

5.1

22.5

13.8

33

November

2.0

16.9

9.4

51

December

-2.9

11.8

4.4

24

Total

 

 

 

992

Land Size

Afghanistan, with a surface area of 652 100 km2 (65 210 000 ha), generally consists of plateaus with mountain ranges and plains in some places. Due to the lack of precipitation in Afghanistan, which is an agricultural country, only 12% (7,788,000 ha) of its land can be considered as arable land [6]. Considering its topography, the central part of Afghanistan is high and mountainous, the north is plain and the southwest has a plateau appearance. 75% of the country's land is mountainous and the mountains in the middle regions extend to the Himalayan Mountains [3]. More than 49% of the mountains are higher than 2,000 meters. Located in the eastern parts of the country, in the region called the Wakhan Corridor, the height of the mountains reaches 7 thousand meters [6].  Afghanistan in general is a topography with high peaks, steep slopes, deep valleys, windy deserts and plateaus poor in vegetation [3]. The plain called “Afghan Turkestan”, which forms the border with Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and stretches for 500 km along the Amu Darya which is the lowest place in the country (258 m), is the main agricultural area. In addition, the Badgis in the northwest, Herat in the west and the Heru Rud River Plains oriented towards Iran, and the Kabul River Valley and the Hilmand Water Basin are the important plains of the country [6].  

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Plant Production

The values of field crops, stone fruit, fresh fruit and vegetable production of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 2019 are shown in Chart 3, 4 and 5. The cultivation area of field crops is 2 872 571 ha, and approximately 6.7 million tons of production has been realized from these areas (Chart 3). The most important field crops are mainly wheat, paddy, corn, barley, pulses, potatoes, cotton, flax and sesame.  Wheat cultivation areas constitute 80% of the total field crop cultivation areas and 72% of the production.  Other plants (paddy, corn, barley, legumes, potatoes, cotton, flax and sesame) have a share of approximately 18% (533 920 ha) in the total cultivation area and 27% in the production amount (1818 990 tonnes). It is seen that the yields are at a very low level due to the lack of precipitation, the use of varieties with low yield potential and the deficiencies in the cultivation technique.

Chart 3. 2019 Field Crops Production of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Cultivation Area (ha)

Production (tonnes)

Yield (kg/ha)

Wheat

2 334 000

4 890 000

2 095

Paddy

127 530

(Rice: 255 128 ) 382 500

2 999

Corn

94 910

184 671

1 945

Barley

84 070

123 576

1 470

Legumes

67 114

45 862

683

Potato

57 066

921 122

16 141

Cotton (unseed)

49 371

73 120

1 481

Flaxseed

38 323

55 000

1 435

Sesame

15 356

33 139

2 158

Sugar Cane

1 653

36 538

22 104

Millet

1 401

2 714

1 937

Sunflower

981

882

899

Sugar Beet

616

9 284

15 071

Total  Cultivation Area: 2 872 571 ha

Total Production: 6 758 408 tonnes

Stone fruits are grown on an area of 74 909 ha and 318 467 tons are produced (Chart 4).  Almond, apricot, peach and nectarine have a very important production area of 72% among the stone fruits. Almond 38 205 tons, apricot 129 363 tons, peach and nectarine 61 361 tons, walnuts 5 025 tons are produced from stone fruits. Apricots account for 41%, peach and nectarines for 19%, and almonds for 12% of stone fruit production.

Chart 4. 2019 Stone Fruit Production of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Cultivation Area (ha)

Production (tonnes)

Yield (kg/ha)

Almond

29 203

38 205

1 308

Apricot

17 719

129 363

7 300

Peach and Nectarine

8 076

61 361

7 597

Walnut

5 025

14 690

2 923

Pistachio

2 171

2 755

1 269

Olive

2 148

8 438

3 928

Hazelnut

1 680

1 476

878

Plum

1 144

7 562

6 610

Other

7 743

54 617

7 045

Total  Cultivation Area: 74 909 ha

Total Production: 318 467 tonnes

Chart 5. 2019 Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Production of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Cultivation Area (ha)

Production (tonnes)

Yield (kg/ha)

Raw Vegetable

116 970

1 025 132

8 764

Grape

89 593

1 112 927

12 422

Watermelon

48 298

846 990

17 536

Melon

37 136

464 230

12 500

Apple

27 559

250 324

9 038

Onion

18 343

352 725

19 229

Strawberry

6 117

35 804

5 853

Fresh Fruit

5 813

40 507

6 968

Citrus

4 364

43 515

9 971

Fig

3 529

24 319

6 891

Pear

2 473

6 966

2 816

Total  Cultivation Area: 360 195 ha

Total Production: 4 203 439 tonnes

Fresh fruits and vegetables are grown on an area of 360 195 ha and 4 203 439 tons are produced (Chart 5). Fresh vegetables, grapes, watermelons, melons, apples and onions have a very important production area of 94% (337 894 ha) among fresh fruits and vegetables. Fresh vegetables are produced 1 025 132 tons, grapes 1 112 927 tons, watermelon 846 990 tons, melon 464 230 tons, apples 250 324 tons, dry onions 352 725 tons. Vegetables and grapes make up 51% of the total fruit and vegetable production, watermelons and melons make up 31%.

Apart from the products mentioned above, Afghanistan is one of the countries with illegal poppy cultivation and opium production in the world. Approximately 60% (154 000 ha) of the illegal poppy cultivation areas in the world, around 240 000 ha, and 70% (3 700 tons) of the illegal opium production, which is around 5 000 tons, are done in Afghanistan. The equivalent of this as morphine is about 400 tons [8].

Animal Production

According to the data of the last three years (2017-2019) (Chart 6), the average live animal stock including poultry of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is 41 478 935. Of these animals, 50% (20 602 100 units) are sheep and goats, 33% (13 877 000 units) poultry, mostly chickens, and 13% (5 244 514 units) cattle. In addition, there are 4% (1 755 321 units) of pack animals such as horses, donkeys, camels and mules. Among the pack animals, donkey has an important number with 1 404 508 units [4]. 

Chart 6. Three-Year (2016-2018) Livestock Asset of Afghanistan [4].

Animals

2017

2018

2019

Average

Chicken, Goose, Duck

13 573 000

14 170 000

13 887 000

13 877 000

Sheep

13 866 000

13 975 088

10 616 810

12 819 299

Goat

7 598 000

7 765 089

7 985 314

7 782 801

Cattle

4 977 000

5 104 825

5 651 717

5 244 514

Donkey

1 317 000

1 334 285

1 562 239

1 404 508

Camel

172 000

172 319

170 368

171 562

Horse

175 000

177 637

113 046

155 228

Mule

24 000

23 892

24 178

24 023

Total

41 702 000

42 723 135

40 010 672

41 478 935

The 2018 animal product production of Afghanistan is around 2.7 million tons (Chart 7). Cow, goat and camel milk forms approximately 2.3 million tons of this production. 87% of total milk production consists of cow milk. Total animal meat production is 261 431 tons, of which 51.2% is sheep and goat meat, 36.5% is beef, and 10.9% is chicken. Camel meat production is at a very low rate of 1.4%. In addition, 44 132 tons of edible offal, 36 508 tons of leather, 22 159 tons of eggs, 9 197 tons of tail fat, 1,239 tons of honey and 50 tons of raw silk are produced. 

Chart 7. 2018 Animal Products Production of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Products

Quantity (tonnes)

Ratio (%)

Total (tonnes)

 

Milk

Fresh Camel Milk

6 809

0.3

 

2 289 365

Fresh Cow Milk

1 992 114

87.0

Fresh Goat Milk

118 635

5.2

 

Meat

Camel Meat

3 667

1.4

 

 

261 431

Beef

95 398

36.5

Goat’s Milk

47 670

18.2

Mutton

86 203

33.0

Chicken Meat

28 493

10.9

 

Edible Offal

Camel

550

1.3

 

44 132

Cattle

16 740

37.9

Goat

9 242

20.9

Sheep

17 600

39.9

Skin (Salted, wet)

Cattle Hide

15 660

42.9

36 508

Sheep and Goat Skin

20 848

57.1

Egg

22 159

100.0

22 159

 

Tail Fat

Camel Fat

257

2.8

 

9 197

Cattle Fat

2 340

25.4

Goat Fat

1 751

19.1

Sheep Fat

4 849

52.7

Honey

1 239

100.0

1 239

Raw Silk

50

100.0

50

Final Total

2 664 081

Processed Agricultural Products Production

A total of 73 306 tons of processed herbal products are produced in Afghanistan, as an average of 2016-2018, 14 879 tons of cotton fiber, 29 307 tons of cotton seeds, 5 209 tons of cottonseed oil, 19 201 tons of flax oil, 740 tons of olive oil, 2 408 tons of sunflower oil, 1 127 tons of sesame oil and 435 tons of tons of sugar. In addition, 64 250 tons of processed animal products, 22 966 tons of cheese and 41 284 tons of butter are produced (Chart 8).

Chart 8. Three-Year (2016-2018) Processed Agricultural Products Production [4].

Herbal Products

2016

2017

2018

Average

Cotton Fibre (tonnes)

19 469

12 134

13 034

14 879

Cottonseed (tonnes)

38 347

23 901

25 672

29 307

Cottonseed Oil (tonnes)

6 538

4 117

4 433

5 209

Flaxseed Oil (tonnes)

20 474

16 589

20 539

19 201

Olive Oil (tonnes)

729

750

740

740

Sunflower Seed Oil (tonnes)

1 671

2 772

2 782

2 408

Sesame Oil (tonnes)

1 067

1 108

1 205

1 127

Raw Sugar (tonnes)

252

383

669

435

Animal Products

Cheese

Goat’s Cheese

10 457

22 966

Sheep Cheese

12 509

Butter

41 284

41 284

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT EXPORT AND IMPORT

Import

Afghanistan’s animal product import values for 2019 are given in Chart 9, herbal product import values are given in Chart 10, and processed product import values are given in Chart 11.

Afghanistan imported approximately 199 million dollars of animal products in 2019 (Chart 9). Milk and dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, yoghurt) account for 45.4% of the import value of animal products, poultry products (chicken, eggs, honey) for 33%, meat and dairy products for 21.5%. The rest is skin and fibers. Fatty and non-fat cow milk among milk and dairy products, beef among cheese, meat and meat products, chicken meat and eggs in poultry products have an important role. Approximately $90.4 million was paid for milk and dairy products, $65.7 million for poultry products, and $42.7 million for meat and meat products.

Afghanistan imported about $446.8 million of herbal products in 2019, of which $222.4 million was field crops and $224.4 million was garden crops (Chart 10). Field crops consist of rice, wheat, potatoes, flaxseed, corn, sunflower, barley, peanuts, soy, canola, sesame, oats and cottonseed. With total value of imports of plant product 49.8% in agricultural products, which account for rice ($125.6 million), wheat ($38.5 million), potato ($37.6 million), flaxseed ($13 million), corn ($3.3 million), sunflower ($2.3 million) and barley ($1.9 million) plays an important role. 90% of the total import value of field products ($222.4 million) is composed of rice, wheat and potatoes, which are the staple foods. Afghanistan is a country that tops the world list in wheat consumption per capita. Afghans get about 60% of their daily calorie needs from wheat-derived products. For this reason, the wheat produced in the country is insufficient to meet the consumption and wheat and wheat flour are imported from abroad.

Chart 9. 2019 Animal Products Import Numbers of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Import (1000 USD)

Ratio (%)

 

 

Milk and milk products

Butter

1 065

 

 

45.4

Cow Cheese

13 026

Skim Milk

39 255

Cow Milk

33 696

Whey

1 438

Yogurt

1 951

Total

90 431

 

 

Meat and Meat Products

Beef

33 199

 

 

21.5

Mutton

2 380

Pork and Pork Products

2 503

Tail Fat

4 480

Tallow

176

Total

42 738

 

Poultry Products

Chicken Meat

54 632

 

33.0

Egg

10 758

Honey

400

Total

65 790

 

 

Skin and Fibers

Sheep Skin

6

 

 

0.1

Salted Sheep Skin

1

Raw Silk

51

Wool

65

 

Total

123

Final Total

199 082

 

Garden products (fruits and vegetables) consist of oranges, apples, bananas, persimmon, walnuts, grapes, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, lemons, peach-nectarines, pears, pineapples and other fruits, as well as onions, tomatoes, peppers, roots and tubers and other vegetables (Chart 10). Among the garden crops, which constitute 50.2% of the total import value of herbal products, fruits have an important place with 173.4 million dollars. Oranges, apples, bananas, persimmon and walnuts are among the imported fruits, and tomatoes, onions, roots and tubers are among the vegetables.

Afghanistan imported a total of 1.5 billion dollars of processed products in 2019, including 1.3 billion dollars of various processed products, 180 million dollars of vegetable oils and 583 000 dollars of oilseed meal (Chart 11). Various processed products include flour, sugar, tea, tobacco products, canned vegetables, processed fruits and vegetables, baby food, food by-products, frozen vegetables, chocolate products, juices, spices, raisins, processed grains and wine. Processed product import value (1.5 billion dollars) consists of 87.6% of various processed products, mainly flour, sugar and tea, 12.3% of vegetable oils, 0.1% of oilseed meal. Various processed products include flour, sugar, tea and tobacco products; palm, sunflower and soybean oil in vegetable oils; among the oilseed meals, soybean and cotton meal have an important place.

Chart 10. 2019 Herbal Products Import Numbers of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Import (1000 USD)

Ratio (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Crops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49.8

Rice

125 580

Wheat

38 474

Potato

37 579

Flaxseed

12 988

Corn

3 337

Sun Flower Seed

2 268

Barley

1 974

Peanut

85

Soy Bean

58

Canola

38

Sesame Seed

5

Oat

5

Cotton Seed

4

 

Total Field Crops

222 390

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garden Crops

(Fruit and Vegetables)

Orange

47 050

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50.2

 

Apple

30 695

Banana

26 770

Date Palm

19 433

Walnut

16 326

Grape

8 285

Coconut

144

Cocoa

63

Coffee

1 218

Lemon

453

Peach-Nectarine

357

Pear

86

Pineapple

65

Other Fruits

22 426

Total Fruits

173 371

Onion

1 448

Tomato

2 737

Pepper

372

Root and Tubers

3 485

Other Vegetables

43 018

Total Vegetables

51 060

Total Garden Crops

224 431

Final Total

446 821

 

Chart 11. 2019 Processed Products Import Numbers of Afghanistan  [4].

Products

Import (1000 USD)

Ratio (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Various processed products

Flour

420 171

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.6

Sugar

263 189

Tea

231 739

Tobacco Products

188 505

Canned Vegetables

67 503

Processed Fruit and Vegetables

28 858

Baby Food

22 141

Food Byproducts

19 320

Frozen Vegetables

12 749

Chocolate Products

11 584

Fruit Juice

10 288

Spices

3 350

Raisin

1 217

Processed Grains

538

Wine

400

Total

1 281 552

Vegetable Oil

Palm Oil

116 625

 

 

 

 

12.3

Sunflower Seed Oil

37 554

Soybean Oil

12 800

Canola Oil

4 500

Corn Oil

2 418

Olive Oil

314

Coconut Oil

203

Flaxseed Oil

31

Cotton Seed Oil

5

Castor Oil Seed Oil

3

Other Vegetable Oils

5 826

Total

180 279

Oilseed Meals

Soybean Meal

352

 

 

0.1

Cotton Meal

205

Colza Meal

17

Sunflower Seed Meal

8

Flaxseed Meal

1

Total

583

Final Total

1 462 414

 

 

Chart 12. Countries that have a share in the import of products imported by Afghanistan [9].

Products Imported by Afghanistan

Countries with a Share in Imports and Their Market Shares (%)

Sector

HS CODE

Potential Products

Flour

1101

Wheat Flour

Kazakhstan (60.2), Uzbekistan (39.2), Russia (0.4), Pakistan (0.1)

Vegetable Oil

1512

Sunflower, safflower, cottonseed oils

Russia (73.3), Uzbekistan (17.6), Kazakhstan (5.1), Turkey (3.6)

Fruits

0805

Citrus Fruits

Pakistan (99.3), Uzbekistan (0.2), India (0.2), Turkey (0.1), Russia (0.1)

Legumes

0173

Dried Legumes

Uzbekistan (80.6), Kazakhstan (18.0), Russia (1.3), Turkey (0.1)

Poultry Meats

0207

Poultry meat and offal (fresh or frozen)

Brazil (45.6), USA(27.6), Turkey (12.2), China (11.1), Ukraine (1.9)

Tobacco and tobacco replacer processed materials

2403

Tobacco and tobacco replacer processed material extracts and essences

India (95.1), Pakistan (2.4), Turkey (2.3), Netherlands (0.1)

Sugary and chocolate products

1704

Cocoa-free sugary products (including white chocolate)

Pakistan (80.8), Saudi Arabia (7.4), Ukraine (4.3), Turkey (3.0), Uzbekistan (2.0)

Egg

0407

Unshelled eggs of birds and poultry

Turkey (35.9), Pakistan (31.7), Uzbekistan (13.7), Kazakhstan (9.9), Latvia (6.4)

Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages

2202

Waters (including mineral and sparkling waters) and other non-alcoholic beverages (sweetened, flavored)

South Korea (54.8), Austria (21.2), Thailand (7.4), Turkey (6.6), Netherlands (3.5)

Nuts

0802

Other nuts (fresh/dried) (peeled)

Singapore (36.3), Indonesia (35.5), USA (22.4), China (1.8), Thailand (1.0)

Milk and Milk products

0401

Milk, cream (not concentrated, containing added sugar or other sweetening substance)

Pakistan (92.4), Saudi Arabia (2.7), Ukraine (2.3), Turkey (1.3), Uzbekistan (1.1)

Milk and Milk products

0402

Milk, cream (concentrated, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter)

USA (37.9), Netherlands (18.8), India (9.6), Poland (9.5), Spain (6.7)

Biscuit

1905

Sweet biscuits and wafers

Pakistan (49.2), Turkey (13.4), Uzbekistan (12.1), Russia (5.9), Germany (3.4)

Vegetables

0710

Vegetables (uncooked or steamed or boiled in water) (frozen)

Pakistan (97.6), Belgium (0.8), Netherlands (0.7), Turkey (0.5), Germany (0.2)

Livestock

0105

Live Poultry Animals

Pakistan (93.9), Uzbekistan (6.0)

When the countries that have a share in the imports of Afghanistan's imported products are examined (Chart 12), Pakistan in the fruits, sugary and chocolate products, milk and dairy products, biscuits, vegetables and livestock sectors; Kazakhstan in the flour sector; Russia in the vegetable oils sector; Uzbekistan in the legumes sector; Brazil in the poultry meat sector; Turkey in the egg sector; India in the tobacco and tobacco products industry; in the nuts sector in Singapore; South Korea in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages sector; it is seen that the USA has a high market share in the milk and dairy products sector containing concentrated and added sweeteners. Pakistan, which has the longest border to Afghanistan among these countries, is the leading country with a high market share in 6 different product items.

Export

Afghanistan in 2019 exports of plant products of around 170 million dollars, 25 million dollars of which is field crops, 145 million dollars is garden crops (fruits and vegetables) (Chart 13); It exported a total of 220 million dollars of processed products, of which 204 million dollars were plant and 15 million dollars were animal products (Chart 14).  The field crop, which has the highest share in the exports, is sesame seed, while the garden crop is walnut, grape and apple. Spices and raisins are important in exports of processed products, and salted beef and dark leather in animal products.

Chart 13. 2019 Herbal Products Export Numbers of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Export (1000 USD)

Ratio (%)

 

 

 

 

Field Crops

Sesame Seed

23 359

 

 

 

14.7

Potato

1 028

Grains

462

Corn

117

Rice

20

Sun Flower Seed

2

Barley

1

Total

24 989

 

 

 

 

 

Garden Crops

(Fruit and Vegetables)

Walnut

70 055

 

 

 

 

 

 

85.3

Grape

32 095

Apple

20 459

Vegetables

11 708

Tomato

6 117

Peach-Nectarine

2 665

Pear

885

Coffee

249

Root and Tubers

293

Pepper

194

Orange

71

Onion

27

Banana

11

Coconut

4

Date Palm

4

Total

144 837

Total

169 826

 

 When the countries to which Afghanistan has exported are examined, sesame seeds to Iran, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE); walnut to India, Turkey and UAE; fresh and raisins to India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, China, Netherlands, Germany and Belgium; apples to Pakistan and India; spices to India, Saudi Arabia, Spain and Yemen; processed fruit and vegetables to China, Egypt, Germany, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and UAE; it is seen that it exports salted cattle and sheepskin to Pakistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan [4].

Chart 14. 2019 Processed Products Export Numbers of Afghanistan [4].

Products

Import (1000 USD)

Ratio (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herbal Products

Spices

108 028

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.1

Raisin

67 313

Processed Fruit and Vegetables

18 472

Cotton Fibre

7 799

Tea

2 197

Flour

256

Tobacco Products

173

Canned Vegetables

114

Frozen Vegetables

87

Sugar

85

Fruit Juice

24

Wine

8

Baby Food

4

Vegetable Oil

4

Processed Grains

2

Total

204 566

 

 

Animal Products

Skin (Salted cattle and sheep)

14 817

 

 

6.9

Wool

216

Milk

160

Meat (cattle and sheep)

5

Total

15 198

Final Total

219 764

 

CONCLUSION

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, located at the crossroads of the Asian continent, between Central Asia, the Middle East and South Dec, is a country of great geostrategic significance. Afghanistan, which has an area of 652 100 km2, has a population of approximately 34 million. 51% of the population is men, 49% are women, and 74% of the current population lives in rural areas and 26% in urban areas.  Average annual population growth rate is around 2.5%. In the country, which is among the poorest countries in the world, 40% of the people are poor and the unemployment rate is around 40%. 80% of the population lives on agriculture and the rate of working in the industrial sector is quite low, it is 6%.

Afghanistan generally consists of plateaus and plains with mountain ranges. Due to the lack of precipitation in Afghanistan, which is an agricultural country, only 12% of its land can be considered as arable land. Agriculture is Afghanistan's most important source of employment. Among the products grown in the country, cereals such as wheat, barley, corn and paddy stand out. However, the yields of these grown crops are low due to lack of precipitation, deficiencies in irrigation and cultivation techniques, and the use of low-yielding varieties. In the country where a significant portion of arable land is devoted to wheat, improvements in the production of this basic nutrient will be beneficial in improving the country's food security and creating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is very important to increase the knowledge, skills and competencies of the country's agricultural sector (agricultural engineers and technicians, farmers, producers and private sector), to introduce them to new techniques and technologies, and to establish an agricultural research system (R&D), especially wheat.

Among the field crops imported by Afghanistan, which is an agricultural country but whose production is not enough for the country's needs, wheat, rice and potatoes, which are the basic nutrition tools, and flour, sugar and tea as processed products have an important role. Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Turkey, India, Singapore, South Korea and the USA are the countries that have a high market share in the import of the products imported by Afghanistan. Pakistan, which has the longest border to Afghanistan among these countries, is the leading country with a high market share in 6 different product items. The field crop, which has the highest share in the country's exports, is sesame seed, while the garden crop is walnut, grape and apple. Spices and raisins are important in exports of processed products, and salted beef and dark leather in animal products.

The people of Afghanistan, who have been traumatized by the civil war and occupations, have gone through difficult processes since the day they were born. The country, which has a lack of qualified human and investment capital, needs to follow the steps that will ensure cooperation and unity of power with its neighbors and real friendly countries other than colonial states, within the understanding of security, development and good governance.

REFERENCES

[1] Anonymous (2017). Afghanistan Report. T.R. Kabul Embassy Commercial Counselor. https://www.kutso.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Afganistan.pdf 

[2] Şeyhanlıoğlu, H. (2008). The Geostrategic Importance of Afghanistan from the 18th Century to the Present. Republic of Turkey, Turkish Cooperation and Development Administration, Eurasia Studies, 34(2): 61-82 

[3] Behroz, A. (2020). History and Society on the Axis of Afghanistan Political Geography. Karabuk University Graduate School of Education, Department of Regional Studies, Master's Thesis, 108 pages. 

[4] Anonymous (2018). Crop production statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). www.fao.org. 

[5] Erman, K. (2017). Geopolitical Theories and Afghanistan. Gazi University Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (11): 394-420. 

[6] Şenli, B. (2017). Afghanistan (1945-1989). Fırat University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of History, PhD Thesis, 518 pages. 

[7] Anonymous (2020). Afghanistan Ekonomy 2020. Ankara Chamber of Commerce. https://www.atonet.org.tr/Uploads/Birimler/Internet/Alt%20Tan%C4%B1t%C4%B1m/2020-08-20-%C3%9Clke%20Raporlar%C4%B1/Afganistan.pdf 

[8] Arslan, N. ve Javani, M. (2014). Opium Production for Medical Purposes in the World. TÜRKTOB, Türkiye Tohumcular Birliği Dergisi, 3(10): 15-19.

[9] Anonymous (2021). Major Potential Agricultural and Food Products for Export to Afghanistan. T.R. Ministry of Commerce. https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5f1ff35713b87604785508bb/Afganistan_Tar%C4%B1m_ve_G%C4%B1da_%C3%9Cr%C3%BCnleri_Matrisi.pdf

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