Monday, 13 September 2021 15:05

A Strategic Look at Afghanistan and Central Asia in the Context of the Countries of the Region

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The term “CENTRAL ASIA” is used to refer to the inland of the ASIAN Continent, far from the oceans. The fact that the region is closed to the international seas is its main feature. Central Asia is also the homeland of the Turkic peoples.

Physical – geographical definition of CENTRAL ASIA:

If the Turkish states in the Central Asian region are taken as the center, AFGHANISTAN, which is located in the outer belt of this region, is the north of PAKISTAN, the region that includes the western part of CHINA (East Turkestan and Tibet), MONGOLIA and the southern part of RUSSIA and the northeastern IRAN is defined as Central Asia.

Many definitions have been made about the borders of Central Asia. The definition of Central Asia was first put forward in 1843 by a geoscientist, Alexander von Humboldt. This region is still referred to as TURKISTAN, which is still used during the Stalin government in many sources.

UNESCO [1] stated that the definition of Central Asia is based on climate and geographical formations. Accordingly, he defined Central Asia as Mongolia and China (including the Tibetan region), the north of Iran, Afghanistan, the north of Pakistan, and northern India (Jammu-Kashmir).

Turkish cities such as Kashgar and Samarkand, and Central Asia with its cities on the historical Silk Road, have been the main center for the spread of people, commercial goods and ideas to Europe, West Asia, East Asia and South Asia throughout the history. In addition, it is the place where historical states such as the Hun and the Mongol Empire, which dominate most of the Asian continent, and whose influence extends to the neighboring European continent, were established. Covered with mountains, deserts and steppes, this region is known for its rich oil, natural gas, uranium and gold reserves, as well as cotton production that developed on its plains (especially during the Soviet period). In addition to these activities, animal husbandry is an occupation with long historical roots in the region. Central Asia, which was largely shared between China and Russia during the colonial period, started to attract more international attention with the independence of the Central Asian Turkic republics after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Central Asia is the roof of the Asian Continent with supreme mountains and mountain ranges up to 7,000 meters high. The deep valleys between the mountains and the bottomless canyons make it very difficult for the forces intending to invade and occupy this geography. This intermittent terrain makes a frontal attack with armored and mechanized units very restrictive and sometimes even impossible for siege maneuvers. The steep and mountainous nature of the terrain can even reduce the air supremacy effect of the invading forces. The ability to Land Use makes it possible to turn the land into a “fortress” for the defending side. Likewise, it may cause the attacking side to encounter difficulties and surprises in the execution of maneuvers such as horizontal and vertical siege and breakthrough.

For a better understanding of our article, let us talk a little about such very unknown or confused concepts as GEOPOLITICS and GEOSTRATEGY.

Geopolitics is a branch of science arising from political geography. This science examines the advantages and disadvantages of political geography for states.

The concept of geopolitics, which is one of the main factors driving the national powers of states and their attitude to foreign policy, can be associated with the geographical location, population characteristics, natural resources and topographical features of countries. There is no agreed short definition on the concept of geopolitics. Geopolitics can be called as the branch of science that examines the relations between the geographical features of states and their politics. The eponym of this concept is the Swedish Rudolf Kjellen [2]. When the words Geo and Politics are parsed, the word Geopolitical brings to mind the meaning of geography-politics. K. Haushofer[3] defines geopolitics as the relationship of the state, which is a political life style that changes under the influence of the geographical region in which it lives and historical developments, with the geography it lives on.

Science of geopolitics emerged under the leadership of geographers and political geographers and was finally institutionalized with their studies. For military strategists, geopolitics is an important guide. Decision makers all around the world are benefited from the geopolitics with the beginning of 20th century.

Geopolitics is the science that examines the geographical position of the countries, the social, cultural, economic and political situation of the country and its military, domestic and foreign policy.

The concept of Geopolitics among the people is very confused with the geographical location. The international path followed by states is called “foreign policy” and geographical location has an important role in this.

In the concept of geopolitics, there are features that can and cannot be changed. The physical location of the countries in the world, precipitation, humidity, altitude, temperature, geographical shape, survey, transportation can be examples of features that cannot be changed. In this regard, the phrase “Geography is Destiny” is very common. Things that can change depending on the period and technology, such as foreign policy, can be given as example.

Geostrategy is a sub-branch of geopolitics, a type of foreign policy that supports political and military planning in terms of knowledge, and is guided in principle by geographical factors that enable or influence its coherence.

Geostrategy examines the strategies of countries based on geography (military strategy, policy strategies, etc.) The best example of this could be the shut-off of the Straits by Ottoman Empire during the World War I.

The success of statesmen is determined by the strategies they produce in order to achieve the national interests and advantages of their countries, based on the science of geopolitics. More precisely, it is achieved by its ability to build the geographical conditions on the Strategic Principles that it will follow in the determination of military strategy, domestic and foreign policy.

One of the Elements of National Power is “Geographical Power”. If a nation knows how to use its geography skillfully for its survival, that geography become more valuable. If you want to seize high lands in geography, you organize expeditions and capture them with a high firepower. However, if you want to “Hold” the high lands, you have to remove the "Other" elements there.

Mountains and high lands facilitate the defense of a country. It makes the invader's job difficult, and sometimes even impossible.

The Geopolitical Position of the Central Asian States and the Imperial States Seeking Interests in the Region

“Central Asia” cannot be characterized as just a geographical concept. Countries in this region cannot act independently of each other in solving the problems in peace, security, economy and ecology. Each country tries to reveal its own geopolitical strategy, aims and national policy.

For centuries, the Central Asian countries were the objects of the “Great Game[4], which lasted for more than 130 years and can be called the age of colonization. Starting from the 1860s, Russia and Britain engaged in a great struggle to create their own spheres of influence in Central Asia.

After the imperialist rivalry between the British Empire and the Russian Tsardom in the 19th century, play makers once again sought to position themselves to control the heartland of the Eurasian continent.

As a result of the collapse of the Russian Tsardom in 1917, the hope of national independence and unity among the Central Asian states blossomed, but this hope disappeared in a short time.

Subsequently, between 1924-1925, the Soviets divided the region into five separate republics, out of concern for the Central Asian states, which had common historical, religious and cultural roots and could present this as a justification for secession. It can be said that the division of Central Asia into five states has led to an increasing crisis and distrust among the Central Asian states, with the efforts of Russia, although they have a common history. It was aimed to have separate languages for each state by eliminating the common Turkish language. Thus, they dictated that Russian was spoken.

Central Asia is one of the rare geographies in the world where the interests of the West and the East clash. More importantly, this region continues to carry the geopolitical importance of the leading powerful countries of the Islamic world such as Turkey, Pakistan and Iran. Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, Central Asian countries have re-joined a similar game, this time as active participants who do not want to be puppets of foreign regimes.

Russia, China and the USA have their own different plans for the current and foreseeable geopolitical problems of Central Asia.

Russia and China are still the great powers of the region and have the potential to maintain their current power. One of the last examples of this is Russia's long-term intervention in Tajikistan, in which Russia received the support of the Commonwealth of Independent States and placed 30,000 soldiers in Tajikistan.

The existing demands in the relationship between Russia and the Central Asian countries and the ‘answers’ created by the Central Asian states against the undesirable Russian foreign policy can be summarized with the following articles;

  • While Russia sees Central Asia as a region of strategic interest, the states within the borders of this region demand that Russia's defense, economic and foreign policy consider their own national interests and at the same time their independence be recognized.
  • Russia sees Central Asia both as a growing market where it can sell its products and as a source of raw materials.
  • Central Asian states (except for Tajikistan of which situation has not yet been clarified) are trying to establish a strategic partnership with Russia on the basis of mutual interest and non-interference in internal affairs. Russia is still trying to clarify its national interests in the region.

Central Asian states are still dependent on Russia due to their geopolitical and economic positions, defense structures, developing communication and information networks and they are trying to form a balance in international relations.

External geopolitical forces are related to the region due to the following factors;

  • The vital geopolitical position of the region,
  • Energy resources (oil and gas), which are considered important by the whole world,
  • The geostrategic priority of the region for Russia

Central Asia gives operational base advantages in all directions for a power based in this region.

For example, the Caspian Sea contains the world's largest resources of hydrocarbons and virgin fossil fuels. The value of crude oil of which size is estimated to vary between 110-243 billion barrels, reaches 4 trillion dollars. According to the US Department of Energy, just Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have 130 billion barrels of oil, which is three times the US reserves. Oil giants such as ExxonMobil, ChevronTexaco and BP have invested more than 30 billion dollars in these countries since the beginning of the 2000s.

All of these factors together constitute a geostrategic priority for both states and the region in general, and are dependent on the effects of both Russia and other geopolitical powers on regional security and strengthening local stability.

In connection with the ambitions of US on Turkey as required by its long-term strategies, FETO, which also got the support of the CIA, was enabled to penetrate the Turkish Republics through ethnic and cultural fundamental ties, under the cover of Turkish teaching, education and health services. Turkey's administrators at that time lacked national strategic intelligence support (to express the sincere and diligent work of the late former Prime Minister and President Turgut ÖZAL, with the exception of the Intelligence work done by the late Colonel Kaşif KOZİNOĞLU and his team, who had to work under the pretext of pro-FETO agents within the MIT), after the Cold War, the opportunity to form a union of forces between Turkey and the Turkic Republics was wasted especially in the periods of short-lived coalition governments that were established with the approval of President Süleyman Demirel and that were not successful, the moves made for the Turkic Republics, such as “for the sake of appearances”, praising (such as “The Turkish World from the Adriatic to the China Sea” and etc.) and facilitating FETO’s work.  As a matter of fact, Uzbekistan, which realized the hidden purpose of FETO & CIA early on, expelled FETO elements from its country and neutralized it.

However, the US invasion of Afghanistan and the opening of a base in Kyrgyzstan, using the World Trade Center attack as an excuse in 2001, worried the Russian Federation, which has strategic ambitions in the region for more than 100 years. With the formations it has established such as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) [5] and the Collective Security Treaty[6], it has tried to maintain its military and economic influence on the Soviet sphere of influence, of which it is the greatest heir, especially in Central Asia. In this context, one of the countries of the region, Kyrgyzstan, which tends to come under the extreme influence and hegemony of the USA, has intervened in the domestic politics of Kyrgyzstan through intelligence agencies, and the USA-Russia rivalry over the country has led to the emergence of 2 separate coups in 10 years.

  • In the early 2000s, both the US and Russia bases in Kyrgyzstan
  • China started to conduct joint military drills with Kyrgyzstan in 2002.
  • Russian President Putin signed new security agreements with Central Asian countries.
  • Especially considering the geographical distance, Central Asian countries have always been aware that they are more open to Russian and Chinese influence under the umbrella of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization instead of the USA.
  • The Caspian region, which was predicted to reach 6 million barrels of oil per day in 2015, was indispensable for the US policy of “diversifying energy resources”. Thus, it aimed to end the dependence of the USA on the Arab-dominated OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).
  • OPEC's share in the global market was constantly expanding. If it continues like this, the United States has calculated that it will have to meet more than two-thirds of its total energy needs from the Middle East in 2020. (Oil facilities produced from shale gas in its territory did not exist at that time.)
  • China, which has become increasingly dependent on energy since the 2000s, wanted to build a pipeline coming from its western neighbor, Kazakhstan.
  • Iran, on the other hand, was proposing its own pipeline network in the Gulf region.
  • In response to all this, the USA was planning a pipeline that it desired to sets off Turkmenistan and reach the Indian Ocean via Afghanistan. The other supported the construction of the pipeline that would start from Baku and reach Turkey's Ceyhan Port through Georgia, and the construction of this line had already begun at that time.
  • The main operator of this project, BP, has invested billions of dollars in Azerbaijan, which has rich oil deposits.

One of the reasons for the USA's efforts to penetrate Central Asia was that Central Asia was very close to the Caspian Sea, which is located within the borders of the region, where the world's second largest oil and gas reserves are located after the reserves of the unstable Middle East. The greatest danger to the US interest in the Caspian Sea was that it was deeply concerned about a re-established Russian Empire, that Russia would gain control over the oil and gas reserves within the region's borders.

According to the expectation of the USA, under the efforts to be effective on Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan, it would guarantee the continued independence of these countries, disable radical Islamist influences and create a lucrative market for American products and services.

In the last 20 years, together with the USA and most European Union countries, which are NATO members, along with the development of markets in Central Asia over the past 20 years, industry and agriculture in the areas of privatization and establishment of the rule of law to be effective, concentrated on strengthening cooperation in education and civil society. Through various Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) they sent to Central Asian countries, they also tried to influence people in cultural and religious issues. Its sociology and economy have been severely damaged due to the admiration for the western lifestyle, the increase in alcoholic beverage consumption habits, and the propaganda of converting to Christianity, which are more influential in countries such as Kyrgyzstan today. As a matter of fact, the social instabilities that occur almost every year in Kyrgyzstan are the most important signs of this.  In Afghanistan, pro-Western secular communities were formed. As a matter of fact, the tendency of women, who have attempted to protest the TALIBAN government on women's rights, towards a western lifestyle and clothing is clear.

The Silk Road strategy created by the USA included the military and political support to be provided to these states as well as diplomatic cooperation. America had important economic and strategic interests in this region. However, all these efforts could not be sustained and were ineffective in the region. By closing its base in Kyrgyzstan in 2018 and not being able to maintain its presence in Afghanistan in August 2021, the US Army had to leave the region, in a sense, “defeated”.

Iran sees the Muslim Central Asian states as a market, a potential sphere of influence, where it can spread its ideology and sell its products. Iran is considering profiting from the export of energy delivered to the gulf by passing through its own lands. With the money earned here, they focused on the construction of mosques and Shia training centers in Central Asia, which were not allowed during the Soviet period. But Iran has embraced only Shiism.

China is making plans to build the world's longest pipeline stretching from Western Kazakhstan to the Xinjiang region.

Russia is still considering itself an imperialist master, was trying to get the pipelines through its territory.

Pakistan is trying to obtain the right of passage to the energy resources of Central Asia. With the support of the Taliban, a radical Islamist movement, Pakistan wants to take over Afghanistan.

Afghanistan, with its history full of instability and wars, continues to stand in front of all development plans as a difficult region.

Considering that foreign powers are fighting for ideological, geostrategic and economic influence over the region, it can be observed that there is a contradiction.


Because Afghanistan was a good strategic location to reach Central Asia and Caspian oil. But this oil basin is an indispensable strategic gateway for Chinese energy security. Afghanistan has been the only country in this region where the United States and NATO Allies have been able to hold on with the help of the occupation for 20 years.

Plans of US-based and supported ISIS [7]

The USA could have carried ISIS, which had completed its mission in Syria and Iraq, to Afghanistan first, and then infiltrated it from Afghanistan to Pakistan and then to Kashmir.

The USA allocated the Jalalabad Military Base for this project.  In addition, the ISIS radio named 'The Voice of the Caliphate', broadcasting from the American base in Jalalabad, was established. 

Military advisors from the Pentagon operated training camps for ISIS in the region in 2019.

Perhaps the primary reason for the US invasion of Afghanistan was; to closely follow Russia, Iran, India, China and Pakistan, which are power centers in this region, and prevent them from becoming an opposite bloc.

China was disturbed by the Treaty of Chabahar[8], which includes the trilateral cooperation between Iran - India - Afghanistan. Because, with the entry into force of this treaty, India could resist China's influence in the region and aimed to gain greater access to energy-rich Central Asian countries through Afghanistan.

Another reason for China's discomfort is the attempt to create an alternative to the project that will connect China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and Pakistan's Gwadar port to China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region with the Treaty of Chabahar

Long before this treaty, India made attempts to lay the groundwork for the pursuit of stability in Afghanistan

In this framework, under the umbrella of “Peace and Conflict Program in Delhi and Jaipur between July 19-22, 2012 by the Delhi Policy Group”, in which Turkey is also represented, “Peace and Stability in Afghanistan: Contribution of Neighbors” a regional conference was held.

India made no secret of its intention to have a say in Afghanistan's reconstruction process. 

Undoubtedly, Pakistan was another country in the region that was at least as disturbed by these initiatives of India as China

Disturbed by IndiaPakistan could not accept the US military presence in Afghanistan. Because Pakistan, which had political influence in Afghanistan before the US invasion, seemed to have lost this influence in the period until the withdrawal of the USA, which took place in August 2021. Pakistan has long wanted to have a supporting government in Afghanistan. For this reason, Pakistan has supported the Taliban from the beginning in the process of finalization the American occupation.

The search for strategic depth against India was effective against the background of Pakistan's desire to act as it wanted in Afghanistan

India, which sees Pakistan as the greatest threat to its security, increased its influence over Kabul during the new process in Afghanistan, with the help of the United States, and focused on consolidating its intelligence activities as well as its political and economic presence throughout the country. 

It could not be expected that China remained silent to all this. China did not delay in taking its guard against the United States and its political/religious/cultural and even geopolitical rival India, which was stuck under the nose of China, with the weakening of US support for the forces in the region after the success gained in the Soviet - Afghan WarChina offered assistance to the Taliban in various fields to maintain its power in the region. China has recently implemented the “New Silk Road” project, which costs billions of dollars. The project consists of three parts. 

  • The first part starts from the city of Xi'an in China, passes through Pakistan and reaches to Turkey.
  • The second part extends from Bangladesh to Myanmar


China was aware of the security problem arising from the Afghanistan-China border.  The narrow strip of 350 km, known as the “Wakhan corridor”, which looks like a canal extending into China and whose width varies between 13-65 kilometers, extends from the lands of northeast Afghanistan to China and Tajikistan.

This corridor, which is in the west - east direction, between the Pamir and Hindu Kush Mountains, separates the Pakistan-Kashmir region of Pakistan from Tajikistan

According to security experts, the geopolitics of the Wakhan corridor creates a threat and vulnerability in China's perception of security, and it is vital that this corridor is controlled by China

Because this corridor offers the opportunity to intervene deep into the inner regions of China. The Wakhan Corridor is a high mountain valley formed by the Panj and Pamir rivers and the Amu Darya. This valley is a trade route and has been used by travelers from East, South and Central Asia since ancient times.

This corridor is a political formation of the Great Game. On the north side of the corridor, the treaty between Britain and the Russian Empire in 1873 and the border between Britain and Afghanistan in 1893, and the Panj and Pamir rivers bordering between Afghanistan and the Russian Empire, divided the historical Wakhan region. On the south side, in the 1893 Treaty of Durand Line, it determined the border between British India and Afghanistan.[9] In the 20th century, the land was cut into a narrow strip, with the Wakhan Corridor a buffer zone between the two empires.

As of 2010, the Wakhan Corridor has a population of 12,000. The northern part of Wakhan is expressed as Afghan Pamir.

Afghanistan has requested over and over the Chinese government to open the Wakhan Corridor border for economic reasons or as an alternative supply route within the scope of its fight against the Taliban rebellion. However, China has refused it, as the corridor border is in the western Xinjiang province and would cause great unrest.  In 2009, it was reported that the USA made a request to China to open the corridor.

Before the Americans were driven out of the country by the Taliban, the question that came to mind was:

Is it possible that the US has placed the terrorists it removed from Syria and Iraq in the “Wakhan corridor”?

In this respect, the “Wakhan corridor” is a passage that facilitates the movement of opposition Muslim Uyghur fighters, who are in conflict with the Chinese army and pose a domestic security problem for China.

Russian strategist Yaroslav Samoylov declares that Pakistan seeks to increase its influence against India in Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives with Chinese support. Also declares that China and Pakistan oppose the US plans in Afghanistan.

Also declares that the events in Kashmir are a reflection of regional rivalry.

And also declares that Russia, on the other hand, would prefer to remain neutral because of its good relations with both Pakistan and India. 

Sometimes, the news of the “Chinese persecution” applied to the East Turkestan Uyghur Turks, brought to the agenda in Turkey, should not be considered separately from the Kashmir crisis.

Turkey has been in favor of both countries maintaining their restraint and acting on the basis of an agreement.

The global actor that fueled the India-Pakistan conflict seems to be the USA.

Turkey is the unbeginning friend of Pakistan. 

Despite having modern and devastating weapons of mass destruction, Soviet Russia could not resist the Afghan Mujahideen in 1979 and was forced to leave mountainous Afghanistan, a part of Central Asia. Likewise, in Afghanistan, which the USA has been trying to occupy with torture - blood - cruelty for 20 years, it could not spread far beyond the capital Kabul.  If you move people away from the “High Geography” line, where they settled for 5 years, the geocultural habits of the people who see the comfort of the city, which have been maintained for thousands of years, will deteriorate. The US could not penetrate the Sunni Taliban, which is the dominant element in Afghanistan, in terms of this sociophysiological reality. The artificial Afghan Army, which it spent 2 trillion dollars for 20 years, devoid of national feelings and equipped with modern warfare weapons and vehicles of 350,000 people, which it thought it had recruited in order to make it sufficient by itself fled in the face of the 85,000-strong Taliban, the majority of whom were lightly armed, determined to live and fight in the mountains, and mostly made up of Pashtun tribes. In the 21st century, it has been witnessed that religious warriors, who once again prioritize asymmetrical struggle and adopt to be martyrs and veterans for their homeland, prevailed in the mountainous Central Asian terrain against conventional superpowers supported by special forces.

ISIS prisoners were released by the USA long before the USA withdrew from Afghanistan, and they were directly released from prisons by the Taliban during the withdrawal process in August 2021.

The stability problem in Central Asia is not an issue that can be resolved only with military alliances.

Let us sum up our article over Afghanistan under the rule of Taliban.

In Muslim countries, there are two conditions to win favor of imperialist states (developed Westerners):[10] 

To give up on an Islam that has permeated every aspect of life. 

* To give them the above-ground and underground wealth that they covet, either too cheap or for free.

Colonial imperial states embrace those which comply with these conditions, trouble those who do not, and exploit universal values for their purposes and interests. The Taliban should not give the West what it wants, but should avoid placing burdens on the Muslim people that it cannot bear. Today, no state can live prosperously and continuously on its own, and Afghanistan must carefully select countries with which it will cooperate and seek assistance. Instead of acting against the Taliban, Muslims should, on the one hand, assist them, and on the other hand, implement all kinds of activities to reduce their mistakes. Countries like Turkey, Pakistan, Qatar and Malaysia should stand by them with the help they can provide to the New Afghanistan.

The Seljuks and the Ottomans also applied the sharia in the state government. In this way, the principle of public interest in the areas where the sharia authorizes the rulers of the state, has been the source of customary rule. Taliban is not a conventional terrorist organization. They are members of a resistance movement that struggles to establish a state that will take over the government by fighting against colonial America for 20 years and that will implement the sharia according to their own sect, understanding, customs and traditions.

May Allah protect the oppressed and persecuted nations from all kinds of evil imperialist states. However, this prayer that we have voiced must be put into practice with actual prayers that will be crowned with strategic works that will lead to an Islamic Union.

ASSAM (Association of Justice Defenders Strategic Studies Center) is about to complete the roadmap to this union with volunteer researchers.  It is ready to welcome young researchers who will work with a determined and sincere effort.

Whatever imperialist states do under the command of their global masters, “In the future, Islam will have the loudest voice.”

Ali COŞAR – ASSAM Strategy & Security Expert


[1] UNESCO: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was established in 1946 as a special agency of the United Nations. The law of this institution was adopted in London in November 1945 at a meeting attended by representatives of 44 countries.

[2] Johan Rudolf Kjellén  is a Swedish political scientist and politician. He invented the term “geopolitics”. Alexander von Humboldt laid the foundations of German geopolitics, which will come to the fore by Carl Ritter and FriedrichRatzel and Kjellén and later Karl Haushofer. Developments in geopolitics began to serve to establish war and peace relations between the countries, thereby establishing a world of prosperity for all.

[3] Karl Ernst Haushofer, German politician and general. He was the teacher of Rudolf Hess, who was the vice president of Nazi Germany. He is a forgotten man in Nazi Germany and one of the most powerful figures behind Adolf Hitler.

[4] The Great Game is the name used to describe the struggle for the sharing of strategic regions by the great powers, starting from the 19th century. It is used to refer to the colonial divisions of Great Britain and the Russian Empire on the basis of India and Central Asia.

[5] Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a group of states established with the agreement signed between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus on December 8, 1991. With the treaty, the Soviet Union was officially overthrown. On December 21, 1991 all former Soviet Republic member countries except for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Georgia signed this treaty. In 1993, Georgia also signed this treaty. Member countries are Azerbaijan, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Russia and Tajikistan.

[6] Collective Security Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance established on October 7, 2002 by six Commonwealth of Independent States countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Belarus and Armenia).

[7] The article of Investigative Writer Ömür ÇELİKDÖNMEZ dated 28.02.2019 was used.

[8] The “Chabahar Treaty”, which includes investments in land and rail connections to be used in transit transportation from Chabahar Port in the southeast of Iran to Afghanistan and Central Asia; It was signed on May 23, 2016 in Tehran with a ceremony attended by Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, Afghan President Ashraf Gani Ahmedzayi and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Damodardas Modi. AA

[9] The one-page agreement, dated November 12, 1893, contains seven short clauses that include a commitment not to interfere beyond the Durand Line.  Beginning in 1894, a joint Anglo-Afghan border survey was undertaken covering approximately 1,287 km (800 miles) of the border. The line, established towards the end of the British-Russian “Great Game”, established Afghanistan as a buffer zone between British and Russian interests in the region. Slightly altered by the 1919 Anglo-Afghan Treaty, the line was inherited by Pakistan in 1947 following the partition of India.




Last modified on Thursday, 30 September 2021 13:33
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