Societies show social and political changes depending on the development and ownership of the means of production throughout history. While these changes increase political and administrative stability and social welfare in coordination with economic development in some societies, they are seen as counterproductive in some societies.
The fact that the land-based and small-manufacturing mode of production has been replaced by mechanization has necessitated a change in the management and administrative structure of the countries.
With industrialization, which is another name for machine-based production, the capitalist economic system has dominated the administrative structure over time, the search for market and the idea of making high profits have become the main target. These goals and developments have revealed modern, unitary, powerful state organizations and administrative structures.
Countries that could not realize the industrial revolution, on the other hand, took the social, legal and administrative structures of the developed countries as an example in order to catch up with the developed countries. In general, the studies carried out to improve the administrative structures were called reforms and differed according to the countries.
In addition to taking the legal, administrative and social structures of the developed countries as an example by both the Ottoman Empire and some other countries, it is seen that some reform studies were carried out in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Among these reform efforts, Koçi Bey Booklet, which is the first written reform and offers suggestions to the sultan, has an important place.
In this study, Koçi Bey Booklet, which is one of the reform movements to be made in the administrative structure against the deteriorations seen in the 16th and 17th centuries, in the Ottoman State administrative system, which constitutes the past period infrastructure of the present Turkish administrative system, was examined.
In the study, the concepts of reform and administrative reform and the general reasons that necessitated the reform were examined and the reform studies carried out in the Ottoman Empire were given under headings, the life of Koçi Bey and the characteristics of the period he lived in and the administrative structure of the Ottoman Empire were examined in connection with the subject.
By examining Koçi Bey Booklet, analyzes were made in the form of main titles about the issues in which the deteriorations in the administrative structure of the Ottoman classical period were determined, how it offered a solution to these deteriorations and the changes in the administrative structure with the treatise and a short comparison was made with the deteriorations seen in today's administrative structure.
2) Administrative Reform, The Reasons That Make Administrative Reform Necessary
Although the history of the studies to define the administrative reform phenomenon dates back to ancient times, its examination in terms of academic discipline was accelerated after the World War II. Stating that there was no reform work before this date would cause ignoring the emergence of modern nation-states. 
Various definitions are made in the academic sense regarding the concept of reform.
Erkul defines the concept of reform as “the process of correcting, improving and curing a broken, deteriorating and unhealthy situation”.
When we examine the definitions of the administrative reform concept made according to ten-year time intervals in the academic discipline, it is seen that there is no differentiation over time. The concept of persistence is defined as “all the efforts of the administration to organize and maintain a fast, efficient and high-quality service that will help achieve national goals”.
Berkman defines it as “the conscious change and reorganization attempts made in the organizational structure and process, administrative methods and techniques and personnel element in order to increase the functions of a management system to a level that will perform its functions in a faster, qualified, efficient and effective manner for the purposes of a administration system”.
Erkul defined administrative reform as “in the purposes, duties, division of duties, organizational structure, personnel system, resources and their use, methods, administrative arrangements (legislation) of public institutions and organizations; all of the short and long-term, temporary and permanent arrangements that aim to correct the existing problems, disorders and deficiencies in the communication and public relations system”.
It is possible to see the most comprehensive definition of administrative reform in the Administrative Reform Advisory Board Report. Administrative reform is defined as “...in the purposes, duties, division of duties, organizational structure, personnel system, resources and the way they are used, methods, legislation of public institutions; All of the short and long-term, temporary and permanent arrangements that aim to correct the existing problems, disorders and deficiencies in the communication and public relations system”.
The term administrative reform is used today with terms such as “improving the administration”. Erkul defines management administration as “all the efforts made to bring the management into an order that will help the institution and the organization achieve its objectives, to provide effective, efficient and quality service and to operate in such an order”; defined the reorganization as “by examining the purposes, duties, distribution of authority, resources, organization, personnel management, communication and transportation systems, human and public relations, administrative texts used by public institutions and organizations; scientific studies and their implementation to reveal the deficiencies and malfunctions seen, to bring solutions and suggestions to them”.
In all the definitions made, it is seen that only the names of the concepts change according to their periods, and the activities that need to be done in the resources and organization structure are the same, considering the purpose of the existence of the administration, which has deteriorated in terms of content. We can state the common features of reform movements and definitions as a regular change within a plan, social change with the change in the structure of the administration, aiming at the efficient and effective functioning of the administrative system, and often a political change in terms of its results.
With the emergence of modern nation-states, the changes made by the states in their administrative structures have been expressed in different terms in the historical process. Different terms were used according to the periods of the reform studies carried out in the Ottoman state. Reform studies that emerged as "advice to statesmen" until the eighteenth century were named as reform, improvement, transformation, administrative reform and structural reform.
The reasons that necessitate administrative reform are directly related to the dynamic process of administration. Administration shows a dynamic process and constantly changes with external and internal factors. The response of the administration to environmental conditions and the level of modernization are important factors in terms of the administration's need for change. The Administrative Reform Advisory Board Report provides sufficient information on the reasons that necessitate administrative reform. It is the same as the reasons stated in the previous administrative reform studies. Reasons for administrative reform in the Administrative Reform Advisory Board Report:
- The increase in the number and variety of public services, the expansion of public services,
- Developments in technology,
- Changes in needs and conditions,
- Developments in the concept of public service and discussions on the concept of state,
- Political crises and the economic situation of the country.
- The reasons stated in the Administrative Reform Advisory Board Report;
- Organizational reasons,
- Environmental reasons,
- External reasons,
- It has been gathered under certain headings as the reasons arising from the change in the understanding of administration.
- Erkul gathered the factors that necessitated the administrative reform under the following headings;
- Increasing human and organizational needs,
- Technological developments,
- Political, economic, social, environmental and cultural change,
- Efficient, effective, fast, quality and continuous service demands,
- Democratic participation demands,
- Being open to development.
- Change in the qualifications required in the personnel,
- Change in the philosophy of duties and responsibilities that the state should assume
The factors related to the administrative reform may differ in direct relation to the political, economic and social conditions of the country at the time of the administrative reform. However, the common point of all of them is that the administration could not keep up with the developments of the period in which it lived, that it lost its effectiveness and efficiency, that is, it became obsolete.
- The Life of Koçi Bey
There is no definite and clear information about the life of Koçi Bey. It is known that Koçi Bey was originally Albanian and was brought to Istanbul from Korçë by means of a devshirmeh and entered the Ottoman Palace. It is not known for certain that Koçi Bey was from Korçë, but the fact that the graves of his wife and son Sefer Şah are in the Iljaz bej Mirahori mosque in Korçë, and that his grave is in the village of Plamet of Korçë, strengthens the thought that Koçi Bey was from Korçë. In various sources, it is stated that the real name of Koçi is Mustafa and that the name Koçi is his nickname. The name Koçi is in the forms of Koçi, Koca, Kuçi in different sources. The word “Koç” in Albanian means red. It is highly probable that Mustafa Bey was given the nickname Koçi because of his red-colored face. There is no definite record of the date of the devshirmeh and the date of entry to the palace. However, it is known that he served in various services in Enderun from the reign of Sultan Ahmet I to the reign of Murat IV. Especially during the reign of Murat IV, he was taken to the Privy Chamber (Has Oda) and gained the trust of the Sultan and became his confidant.
Koçi Bey participated in the Baghdad expedition as the accountant of Sultan Murat IV.
After the death of Sultan Murat, he became the accountant and confidant of Sultan İbrahim, who succeeded him. Koçi Bey retired in the last days of Sultan İbrahim or in the first years of Mehmet the Fourth and settled in Korçë.
- The Importance and Features of Koçi Bey Booklet
The booklet prepared by Koçi Bey is the first written report submitted to the sultan in the Ottoman Empire until that date. Since there was no tradition of giving such a written report in the 17th century, this booklet on the state order gains importance. In addition, the reasons for the collapse seen after the reign of Murat III were examined in the Koçi Bey Booklet, and the mistakes of the previous Ottoman sultans were fearlessly expressed.
Koçi Bey Booklets consist of two booklets, one of which was presented to Sultan Murat IV and the other to Sultan Ibrahim. The Kochi Bey Booklet was first presented to Sultan Murat IV in 1631. This booklet consists of twenty-two chapters written briefly. The fact that the booklet was presented before the date of 1632, when Murat IV took over the administration by hanging Topal Recep Pasha, shows the effect of Koçi Bey's presentations on the Sultan. The sultan, who is tied to his mother's apron strings until that date, took over the administration under the influence of Koçi Bey and made the reforms suggested by Koçi Bey.
The fact that the booklet was presented to a tough-tempered sultan like Murat IV shows the importance of Koçi Bey for the sultan. The fact that Koçi Bey lived in the palace and was among the sultan's advisers caused him to closely observe and recognize how the state worked, the mistakes made and the malicious manipulation of the sultan by self-seekers.
It is possible to examine the booklet presented to Sultan IV Murat in two parts. In the first part, Koçi Bey explains the disorders in the state organization. While doing these, he showed the courage to criticize even the sultan. The second part describes the measures to be taken to correct all disorders.
In 1631, in the days when Murat IV took over the state administration, Koçi Bey gave the sultan the reform booklets. It can be said that Sultan IV Murat put his idea of making radical reforms in the state administration into action, was especially influenced by Koçi Bey's booklets and took action to solve the problems mentioned in the booklets., The second booklet is the one presented to Sultan İbrahim. Sultan İbrahim, who did not have a full education and had spent his life in a cage before power, asked Koçi Bey to write him a booklet on the social and economic situation of the Ottoman Empire.
The booklet, which was written on this issue, was presented to Sultan İbrahim in 1640.
The booklet presented to Sultan Ibrahim, consisting of eighteen chapters, was written in a plain and clear language. The reason for this can be shown as the lower cultural level of Sultan İbrahim and the spiritual state caused by waiting for years in a room of the palace in fear of being hanged at any moment. Koçi Bey expressed the issues as if he were giving a lecture to Sultan Ibrahim. In this booklet, Koçi Bey appears as a teacher and Sultan İbrahim appears as a student. In this booklet, Koçi Bey gives information about the state organization, how to address and treat state officials, how to write edicts, civil division, tax and monetary affairs, and the reception of ambassadors.
5) Characteristics of the Period in which Koçi Bey Lived and the Ottoman State Administration of the Period
Koçi Bey lived in the 17th century. Although this period seems to be the largest empire in the world considering the size of the borders of the Ottoman state, it is a period in which the problems that emerged in the administration of the state, the palace environment, the rebellions, the inadequacy of statesmen, economic problems, the Ottomans were in a difficult situation and there were no good hopes for the future.
6) Examination of Koçi Bey Booklet
Koçi Bey Booklet consists of two booklets given to Sultan IV Murat and Sultan Ibrahim. The booklet given to Sultan IV Murat consisted of 22 chapters.
In the first chapter, which is the beginning chapter, Koçi Bey explains that “the sultans take care of all the people and the religious scholars and mujahid veterans who act according to their knowledge are given what they deserve”. Then, until the thirteenth chapter, he determined the situation by explaining the problems he saw in the Ottoman state administration, the effects of the palace community in the administration, why the vassalage deteriorated, what kind of morality the scholars had, how and why the janissaries were corrupted for the first time, the reason for the strife and corruption in the country, and the situation of the people. After his determinations, Koçi Bey made suggestions including the measures to be taken in order to correct each failing issue.
The booklet given to Sultan Ibrahim consists of eighteen chapters. In this booklet, suggestions have been made about the methods to be applied in the administration of the country and the decisions to be taken in military, financial and civil matters.
The problems identified in Koçi Bey's booklet regarding the country's administration and the suggestions developed against them were examined in the text on the basis of the keywords “State Administration, Vassalage system and Military and Janissary system, People and Tax, Scientists”.
6.1. Defects Detected in the Koçi Bey Booklet
In his booklet, Koçi Bey first gave information about the criteria for the election, duties and powers of the Viziers, Governors and Beys, who had an important role in the administrative staff, about the state administration, explained the reasons for their deterioration, and then made suggestions.
He stated that high-ranking civil servants were chosen from veterans with good morals and underlined that they were not dismissed unless they committed any crime. Especially regarding the Grand Vizier he stated; “The Grand Vizier is a supreme office. He should not be dismissed without reason after deserving it, and he should remain in the office of grand vizier for many years and be independent in his affairs.”
Also, regarding the elections of high-ranking statesmen, Koçi Bey said;
“Previously, the principality, governorship and other sultan's offices were given to veteran, righteous and pious people who had worked in the administration of the country, and no bribes or tips were received in return for a coin or a habbe. In particular, the governor of sanjak and governors would stay in their places for twenty to thirty years.
Koçi Bey states the previous qualifications of the civil servants in the Divan-ı Hümayun (Imperial Council) as follows; “Highly illustrious court clerks were connoisseurs of writing, capable of knowing the law and able to write letters to the rulers around them. Defter-i Hakani and Finance clerks were knowledgeable, correct, conscious and loyal. Dergah-ı Ali sergeants were experienced workers and were able to act as ambassadors with the rulers around them”.
Koçi Bey stated that “bribery” is the main reason for the corruption in state administration.
As a negative practice, stating that the peoples of Enderun and Birun should not interfere in the sultanate and state affairs; during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, he gave the example of the sultan's making Ibrahim Pasha, who was one of the private harem janitors, a Grand Vizier, without following the old methods, and giving him to his daughter, Mihrimah Sultan, Rüstem Pasha, and making him a Grand Vizier.
In addition, the interference of the people close to the sultan, namely the people of Enderun and Birun, in state affairs led to the killing of many grand viziers and viziers for no reason. Koçi Bey describes the unjust killing of Ferhat Pasha as follows; “......he took the son of the shah's brother with him to the state sultan and handed him over. While compliments and nice words were expected by the sultan in return for such services, courtiers, relatives, some of the gossipers made many slanders about Ferhat Pasha and eventually murdered him without any sin.”
The malfunctions that Koçi Bey has identified regarding the state administration;
- Appointments to high-ranking civil servants are made regardless of the merits of individuals,
- Appointments are made in return for bribes by highlighting the circles close to the sultan in the palace,
- Dismissal of the civil servants unjustly with the rumors that have arisen as a result of envy and jealousy, ignoring their success in duty,
- The prevalence of bribery at all levels of the state,
- We can state it as the murder of successful civil servants with various slanders.
Koçi Bey stated that the mesne lords were among the chosen ones who gave their lives and heads for the sake of religion and the state, at the same time they were brave, superior, obedient people and there were no foreigners among them, all of them were people who had the sultan's status from their hearth, father and grandfather, and there was no increase in the salary of those who were not seen as useful in the war.
It is stated that on this date, when the deterioration in the vassalage system began in 1584, “Ozdemir's son Osman Pasha” gave vassalage to some foreigners. Giving the vassalage to someone other than the people of the region from Istanbul caused the administration to lose its influence over the people of the region. While the people who had been helpful in the war and were selected from among the people of the region were given vassalage by the governors in the past, the people complained to Istanbul, and then the Grand Vizier from Istanbul gave the vassalage to those who did not deserve it, meaning that the people who were wronged did not have an authority to complain about. It is seen that this situation caused unrest and some vassalage owners did not participate in the wars, and that the state officials and people close to the palace in Istanbul resorted to various tricks such as bribery to get wealth.
He states that vassalage distributed with bribes damage the state treasury, and that as a result of vassalage given to those who are not entitled, veteran, helpful and brave people are left in a corner in poverty.
Koçi Bey explains the following regarding the bribe distributed;
“....The viziers who came after them, compelled to follow their inner people, act according to their moods, and did not refuse whatever they wanted. They also start to get involved in many affairs, find their way through the villages and fields that were conquered hundreds of years ago at the expense of blood, give some as barley and some as property, and after they are completely satisfied, each of them gives their men many vassalage and cuts the living areas of the swordsmen”.
The malfunctions that Koçi Bey has identified regarding vassalage;
- Giving the vassalage to those who are not among the people of the region,
- To be given to those who are not useful in war and who are disobedient,
- We can state that giving the vassalage from the center (Grand Vizier) instead of the local authorities (Governor) causes bribery and nepotism.
Koçi Bey first explained the practices of the state in the previous periods about the janissaries and military service. He states that janissaries, armorers, artillerymen and soldiers in other quarries were generally trained in the devshirmeh system and people from other places were not included in them, while devshirmeh were mainly Albanians, Bosnians, Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians.
Koçi Bey explains that “Janissary chamberlains and sergeants would stay in their positions for seven or eight years and would not be dismissed without any reason” and that the officers in question were assigned to these duties for certain periods of time and that they were not dismissed if they did not commit any crime.
Koçi Bey tells that the timariots are in the timars of their owners, they do not go to other places without permission, so that they are aware of everything that is going on in their region.
We can state the malfunctions that Koçi Bey has identified regarding military service and the janissaries;
- Recruitment of persons other than the devshirme method to the Janissary corps,
- By recruiting people from every clan as janissaries, excessive inflating the staffing,
- The janissaries, who were soldiers from Ulufe (paid) being a burden on the state treasury,
- The dismissal of the Janissary chamberlains and their sergeants for various reasons in a short time,
By explaining the method of collecting taxes from the people until 1582, Koçi Bey states that it is not within the authority of anyone to collect more taxes, except for these taxes, the amount of which is fixed. He attributes the increase in the amount of tax to the increase in expenses with the increase in the number of soldiers from Ulufes, and states that the tax amounts have been increased in order to meet the expenses. He states that the people are in a difficult situation in the face of increasing tax amounts, pressure is applied on the people who cannot pay their taxes, the people are persecuted, they are devastated and exhausted.
Koçi Bey describes the plight of the people as follows;
“......When the tax increased, the people were more persecuted and the people was devastated. Previously, forty coins and fifty coins were charged per household, now two hundred each, forty coins from each soldier, three hundred coins for each household, and one coin for each sheep, only for the government property”.
The malfunctions that Koçi Bey has identified regarding people and taxes;
- Increasing taxes to cover rising costs,
- We can state it as the pressure exerted by the rulers on the people who cannot pay their taxes.
Stating that great values were given to scientists during the previous sultan's period and many beautiful works were created as the fruit of this value, Koçi Bey attaches great value to scientists with his words “The continuation of knowledge belongs to the scholars”.
As a scholar, Koçi Bey tells about Shaykh al-Islams, qadi askers, kadis and lieutenants. He states that the most knowledgeable and virtuous among the scholars, the oldest and the most religious, is the Shaykh al-Islam, and the one who has the rank of Shaykh al-Islam will not be dismissed. He tells that after the Shaykh al-Islam, the qadi askers came, they were chosen from virtuous and knowledgeable people and they stayed in office for a long time. He states that these people retire with a certain amount of money at the end of their duties and dedicate their retirement to science and produce beautiful works.
However, he gives an example that the order that has been implemented since 1594 has been disrupted, and that the Shaykh al-Islam Sunullah Efendi was dismissed several times without any reason. He states that in the face of frequent dismissals, officials such as Shaykh al-Islam, qadi asker and qadi were forced to flatter the statesmen, were afraid to tell the truth in the presence of the sultan and tried to make everyone happy.
The malfunctions that Koçi Bey has identified regarding scientists;
- Shaykh al-Islam and qadi askers not being chosen among virtuous and knowledgeable people,
- Shaykh al-Islam, qadi asker, qadi and lieutenants are dismissed without any reason,
- Abuse of the duties of qadi asker, qadi and lieutenant for money,
- Ignorant and incompetent people coming to these positions without merit,
- We can define it as resisting the words and decisions of ignorant and incompetent people as a result of their failure to provide justice.
6.2. Solution Suggestions Presented in Koçi Bey Booklet
Koçi Bey offered solutions to the problems he identified in the state administration, which are still valid today. Koçi Bey considered the survival of the state as a priority in his proposals and presented measures in state institutions, both structurally and functionally, in order to achieve this. The suggestions offered by Koçi Bey are in the form of advices to the Sultan. It shows the importance of Koçi Bey's influence on the sultan, when a state official clearly stated the setbacks to Sultan Murat IV, who occupied an important place with his practices and decisions in the Ottoman classical period, and indicated what needs to be done in return.
Prevention of bribery comes first among the suggestions offered by Koçi Bey. He stated that in order to prevent bribery, the Grand Viziers should not interfere in their duties, the people of Enderun and Birun should be kept away from state affairs, the governors and governor of sanjak should be chosen from qualified, knowledgeable people who had previously served the state, and that they should not be dismissed in a short time through various palace intrigues.
Regarding the improvement of the vassalage system, he proposes that the distribution be fair, and that it should be given to those who serve “worthy of religion and the state” and to those who show usefulness in war among themselves.
Regarding the improvement of the Janissary corps, it recommends that no more people be recruited than necessary, that no concessions should be made on education and discipline within the corps, that the head of the janissaries and sergeants and their chamberlain should not be dismissed without any reason, and that the old laws should be applied exactly.
He proposes that the people should be treated fairly in order to improve the situation of the people, and that taxes should not be increased unnecessarily.
While determining Koçi Bey's suggestions about scientists, we should consider Koçi Bey's criterion applied in the selection of kadi as a basis. It is seen that this criterion is not applied in many places even today. Koçi Bey's criteria for the appointment of kadis are as follows;
“It is not correct to give the high positions of ilmiye through others. It should be given to whoever is the most knowledgeable. The necessary tool on the way to becoming a kadi is ‘knowledge’. Not age, experience, ancestry and family. Now when they do a fair job, they give the office to the old ones. However, old age is not a reason for being a kadi in the presence of Allah”.
6.3. Results of Koçi Bey Booklet
Koçi Bey wants the Sultan to prevent bribery in the state administration, to give ranks and duties to those who deserve it, to fix the vassalage system and the Janissary corps, to put the army on solid foundations, and to be fair in the tax system. However, when the applications after the booklet are examined, it is seen that there is no fundamental change. The sultan first eliminated the perpetrators of the riots and their collaborators, viziers and statesmen, in order to put an end to the riots that took place within the country.
(Execution of Grand Vizier Recep Pasha, murder of Deli Ilahi, execution of Köse Mehmet Ağa and Defterdar Mustafa Pasha, murder of Kadi of İznik and Shaykh al-Islam Hüseyin Efendi, etc.)
Deli Ilahi is the brother of Daglar Delisi SUleyman, who was in Hüsrev Pasha's Baghdad expedition and prevented the cavalry from attacking with his speech while they were on the offensive. He settled in Seydişehir after the Baghdad campaign and was influential there Cezar, et al. (a), p. 1887 Köse Mehmet Ağa; Head of the Janissaries.
During the reign of Murat IV, he disciplined the janissaries by preventing bribery in state institutions. Thanks to the harsh and uncompromising attitude of the sultan in the palace and its surroundings, tolerance and interference in state affairs disappeared. There were reforms in the periods after the Koçi Bey Booklet.
(Katip Çelebi's “Roads to be Taken in Correcting Corruptions 1652” and Defterdar Sari Mehmet Pasha's “Advice to Statesmen”) However, it is seen that these reform studies were limited to the ruling periods of the sultans and could not be sustained according to the periods.
- Overview and Result
The reform studies carried out before the 18th century took its place in history in the form of personal studies as advice to the sultans in terms of form and content. The contents of these are generally the arbitrary rule of the sultan and statesmen, corruption in the military order, competition and bribery in the appointments of viziers and civil servants, inattention to the public and heavy taxes, riots, deterioration as a result of unfair distribution in the land order.
After the 18th century, "Westernization" constitutes the basis of the reform studies carried out with the Sultan Selim III. After this date, the reform efforts were directed from personal to institutionalization and first of all, it was aimed to make arrangements in the military field.
It is possible to state the disruptions in today's public administration as bribery, nepotism, appointments made without regard to merit, the heavy tax system, the influence of military on politics, the struggle between the central administration and the local administration. Contrary to the principle of merit that has emerged throughout history, especially in the personnel regime, which is an important element of public administration, biased employment policies, imbalances in the financial and social rights of employees, and regulation with administrative savings instead of legal norms are the ongoing problems of today's administrative system.
Therefore, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the problems of the period when Koçi Bey Booklet was written and the problems of today. The main themes of both the reform studies before the 18th century and the reform studies from the 18th century to the Republic and the post-Republican period are essentially the same.
We can see the reform movements as “real” in terms of the period in which they were made, as a “tragedy” when the reforms lost their validity and as “irony” that the issues that were the subject of all reform movements in the past are still valid.
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 Baraya, the people who do not pay tribute, that is, the Muslim people, Reaya, the people who pay tribute, that is, the non-Muslim people
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 Salary given monthly to each class of Kapikulu (sultan's household troops) and quarterly to novices
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